| Written by Michal Wozniakowski-Zehenter

Wind farm ships, also referred to as SOVs, CSOVs, installation vessels or jack-up barges, are vital components in every single stage of life of offshore wind farms. These specially designed boats are essential for crew transportation, building, maintaining, and decommissioning wind turbines in some of the harshest ocean conditions. As the world's need for renewable energy keeps increasing, ensuring the safety of both the wind farm ships and their crew members becomes even more critical nowadays.

Operating on the highest level of efficiency and security for the vessels themselves and their crew while maintaining an excellent safety record in offshore daily duties is one of the most significant factors we will discuss in this article.

Wind farm ships and safety record

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wind farm ships: BEING PREPARED

The backbone of successful wind farm ship operations consists of dedicated individuals who make it all happen. From crew members navigating through the harsh waters to technicians and engineers who maintain and repair complex machinery, each person undergoes comprehensive training to acquire the knowledge and skills required for their respective roles.

The training program covers various areas, including safety protocols, emergency procedures, and the operation of specialised equipment. By immersing themselves in these topics, all personnel gain a deep understanding of potential risks and effective mitigation strategies. They learn to identify and respond to emergencies in a split second, ensuring the safety of everyone on board (continue for more on emergency response training)

Regular drills and simulations further enhance their capabilities and preparedness. These exercises replicate real-life scenarios, allowing individuals to put their training into practice and refine their responses. Consequently, they become better equipped to handle unexpected situations that may arise during wind farm ship operations.

The focus on rigorous training and receiving certification goes beyond mere compliance with regulations. Wind farm ship operators understand that safety is not only a checklist item but a mindset that needs to be ingrained. By prioritising the continuous development of their personnel, they foster a safety culture that permeates every aspect of their operations.

This safety-conscious mindset is pivotal to the success of offshore wind farm installations. It ensures that all individuals involved, from the crew members stepping onto the ship to the engineers monitoring the complex machinery, approach their tasks with utmost caution and attention to detail. Consequently, the risk of accidents or incidents is significantly reduced, safeguarding both people and the environment.


FUNDAMENTALS – Standards and regulations

International standards and regulations cover a wide range of aspects, starting from the design and construction phases. Wind farm ships must meet specific guidelines and requirements to ensure their structural integrity and stability. Every detail, from material selection to advanced engineering techniques, is carefully considered to ensure the vessel can withstand harsh weather conditions and provide a safe working environment for the crew in wind farm operations.

Equipment certification is also crucial for meeting international standards. All machinery and systems onboard wind farm ships must undergo rigorous testing and certification processes to ensure their reliability and compliance with industry regulations. This includes propulsion systems, electrical installations, navigation equipment, and safety devices. By adhering to these standards, wind farm ship operators can have confidence in the advanced and dependable technology onboard their vessels.

Crew qualifications are another vital aspect of safety. Wind farm ships require highly skilled and experienced personnel to operate and maintain them effectively. Crew members must possess the necessary qualifications and certifications, demonstrating their competence in handling the ship's complex machinery, emergency procedures, and safety protocols. By following established crew qualification standards, wind farm ship operators ensure that their vessels are operated by professionals prioritising safety above all else.

Safety management systems are integral to adhering to international standards. These systems provide a framework for identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks associated with wind farm ship operations. They establish procedures and protocols to ensure safety is ingrained in every aspect of the vessel's operation, from regular maintenance and inspections to emergency response plans. By implementing robust safety management systems, wind farm ship operators foster a safety culture where every crew member actively participates in maintaining the highest safety standards. Adhering to international standards and regulations demonstrates wind farm ship operators' commitment to the safety and well-being of their crew. This commitment nurtures a safety culture that permeates the entire offshore wind industry. It reinforces best practices, encourages continuous improvement, and sets a benchmark for consistent safety performance. Ultimately, adherence to international standards is essential for maintaining a proven safety record for wind farm ships and ensuring the long-term success of the offshore wind industry.


wind farm ships: It's about the technology

Maintaining a strong safety record for wind farm ships relies heavily on establishing robust maintenance and inspection programs. These programs are crucial due to these specialised vessels' challenging conditions in demanding marine environments. With constant exposure to high winds, rough seas, and corrosive saltwater, meticulous attention is required to ensure optimal performance and the crew's safety. Regular maintenance programs are implemented meticulously, covering the ship's mechanical, electrical, and structural components. Following a comprehensive maintenance schedule helps mitigate potential risks and enhances the overall functionality of the vessel. This proactive maintenance approach ensures reliability and guards against unforeseen issues during operations. In addition, routine inspections are conducted during dry dock periods and while the ship is in operation. These inspections play a vital role in identifying and promptly resolving any potential issues before they become safety hazards. By thoroughly examining every aspect of the ship, from the hull to the machinery, navigation systems, and safety equipment, weaknesses or vulnerabilities can be promptly addressed, ensuring the ship's and its crew's ongoing safety.

By prioritising comprehensive maintenance and inspection programs, wind farm ship operators effectively address their maintenance needs and ensure the reliability of their equipment. Moreover, these programs foster a robust safety culture crucial for the success of wind farm operations, as they play a fundamental role in maintaining the safety of the ship and its crew members.



In the ever-evolving maritime industry, wind farm ship operators must proactively identify and mitigate potential risks. Before any operation, a thorough risk assessment is conducted. This involves meticulously evaluating various factors that could pose hazards, such as weather conditions, sea states, vessel stability, and equipment reliability. By closely examining these elements, operators gain valuable insights into the potential risks that may arise during the operation.

However, risk assessment is not a one-time process. It requires vigilant and continuous monitoring throughout the operation. Regular updates to risk assessments ensure that safety measures remain effective and relevant, even as conditions change. By staying proactive and responsive, wind farm ship operators can adapt their strategies and implement necessary precautions to address emerging risks. 

It must be emphasised more how crucial practical risk assessment and management are. When operators can and will proactively identify and address risks, the chances of accidents or incidents drop significantly. This not only ensures the well-being of the crew but also preserves the integrity of the vessel. A proven safety record speaks volumes about the unwavering commitment and dedication of wind farm ship operators in upholding exceptional safety standards (Are you interested in rig safety?).


Working together and exchanging the knowledge 

The wind energy industry thrives on the active participation of various stakeholders, including operators, shipbuilders, maintenance providers, and industry organisations. Through ongoing information exchange, sharing of best practices, and learning from past experiences, these key players collaborate to maintain the highest safety standards in wind farm ship operations.

Building upon the knowledge gained from previous projects and incidents, the industry embraces a culture of continuous improvement. Stakeholders can identify potential hazards and implement innovative safety measures by sharing valuable insights and lessons learned. This collaborative approach not only helps prevent accidents and mitigate risks but also fosters a culture of learning and development within the industry.

By working together and sharing knowledge, the wind energy sector remains at the forefront of safety advancements. This collective effort ensures the continuous protection of personnel, equipment, and the environment. Through this dedication to collaboration and knowledge sharing, wind farm ships continue to make remarkable progress in safety, setting a benchmark for other industries to follow.

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How many wind farm ships are needed to build an offshore wind farm?

Once a wind farm begins construction, up to 50 boats may be working on the site simultaneously. The vessels include substation installation vessels, foundation installation vessels, turbine installation vessels, array and export cable laying vessels, and sea-based support vessels.

What is the minimum distance between wind farms? 

The number of wind turbines depends on how large the site is. The wind turbines themselves need to be around '5 rotor diameters' apart so that they don't affect each other with turbulence. For a 500 kW wind turbine, this means 250 metres apart, and for a 2.5 MW wind turbine, it is 410 metres.



Maintaining a proven safety record for wind farm ships is of utmost importance in the offshore wind energy sector. By prioritising rigorous training, adhering to international standards, implementing robust maintenance and inspection programs, leveraging advanced technology, conducting practical risk assessment and management, and fostering collaboration and knowledge sharing, wind farm ship operators have achieved an impressive safety track record. As the industry progresses and flourishes, upholding safety standards remains a top priority, promoting continual enhancement and guaranteeing a secure working environment for all individuals involved in wind farm ship operations.

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